The Coalition of Somalia Human Rights Defenders (CSHRDs) is a non-governmental, non-partisan and

human rights organization which is registered under the Non-Governmental Act.

CSHRDS is composed of members with notable experience in the field of human rights.

CSHRDS comprises of HRDs e.g. women human rights defenders, indigenous people’s rights defenders, environmental defenders and other human rights activists.

The main objective of the CSHRDs-Coalition is to work towards enhancing the Promotion

and protection of Human rights and defending the HRDs/WHRDs in Somalia. It is registered under the Ministry of Interior.

CSHRDs-Coalition is comprised of both individual and organizational memberships, whereby as of

Aug 2020 it had members who are basically human rights defenders e.g. human rights lawyers, journalists, humanitarian workers, and other human rights activists in Somalia.


  • Promoting human rights advocacy
  • Creating New Strategies to human rights advocacy
  • Protecting and defending human defenders HRDs & women human rights defenders WHRDs as well as indigenous people’s rights defenders, environmental defenders and other human rights activists.


Fostering Human rights & Human dignity

CSHRDs – Its membership and representation in terms of operation is spread in all over Somalia’s (Federal and regional states).

CSHRDS has women section, namely; women human rights defenders WHRDs that fight for women rights e.g. women from indigenous and minority groups to get all their social, economical, and political rights etc. in Somalia. WHRDs in Somalia from all member states will work to ensure that women rights are respected and upheld.

The main interest of
this coalition is to, inter alia,
work towards enhanced security and protection of the HRDs in the Federal
Republic of Somalia. It also intends to strengthen regional and international
interventions towards protection and promotion of the rights and responsibilities
of the HRDs. The ultimate result of all these, as this coalition visualizes is
a contribution to creation of safer working environment for the CSHRDs. It has
been and still intends to work closely with different stakeholders including
local, regional, international organizations, individual Human rights
activists; development partners; Federal Government and other relevant

(i) Understanding the Nature of CSHRDs-Coalition.

-Coalition of Somali Human Rights Defenders abbreviated as CSHRDS was established by a determined   group of HRDs from different local Human rights groups based in Somalia on 10th September 2019 and their move towards establishing this coalition that comprises more than 50 local human rights organizations comes after having considered the dire need for strong representation of HRDs rights and interests both locally and internationally given the country’s situation where the political and security situation are main challenges to HRDs’ daily activities. Most of HRDs work under low profile mode just to prevent against threats and physical attacks against them and their families. In the very beginning of the establsihment of this  Coalition, a handful of HRDs met to discuss issues and challenges facing HRDs and started to engage in serious of serious talks on daily basis in early August 2020, these discussions took place via zoom and WhatsApp group live discussions which led to a unanimous decision to establish a Coalition that represents all HRDs in Somalia inclusively in order to promote, defend and advocate effectively for human rights and represent HRDs interests at all levels and in all platforms and form one amplified strong voice. The HRDs group started to call their colleagues to join them in their efforts to establish a coalition that stands for their rights and the rights of the people of this country. The group made their mission promotion, defense and advocacy of human rights in Somalia. Subsequently and gradually local human rights organizations (small and giant) commenced to join the coalition in order to establish the largest coalition of HRDs in the horn of Africa region. The coalition is growing ever since. (Necessity is the mother of invention)This Basic discussion paper out lines the coalition’s main strategic focus, objectives, out puts and the way forward.

Strategic Objectives

SO1 – Forging  Effective network of HRDs collaborating in Somalia.

SO2 – Improved social accountability and governance for better service delivery for all.

SO3 – A transparent and accountable civil society financing framework for reinforcement of governments’ call to action in the fulfillment of governance obligations

SO4 – Human and financial resource capacity enhancement to realize the objectives of the Coalition.

SO5 – To be the leading Human Rights coalition in Somalia, that addresses Human Rights Defenders needs and challenges through protection,  capacity building as well as capacity development and advocacy. Over the coming 10-year period, CSHRDs-Coalition will deliver on the following Key Result Areas: – Legal Aid and social protection of human rights defenders, Promotion of the human rights defenders among coalition members, Protection of human rights defenders at risk and human rights defenders focal persons, Civic and legal education, advocacy for law reforms and its organizational development. Specifically, Networking with Global and Regional HRDs, CSHRDs-Coalition seeks to accomplish the following strategic aims:

1. Legal knowledge among legal practitioners improved

2. Legal frameworks for human rights defenders improved

3. Public awareness on human rights defender’s protection and capacities to address the rights of the human rights defenders enhanced (Promotion of the work/ role of CSHRDs in/to the Society, make it recognized hence valued)

4. Human rights defenders’ capacities and civil societies networking improved. CSHRDs-Coalition capacity and sustainability strengthened. Strategic Objectives (Outputs)

To accomplish the above strategic aims, CSHRDs- Coalition will deliver the following objectives/outputs:

Its specific objectives are: i. To advocate for the recognition of CSHRDs and the work that they do in the country (Advocacy);

ii. To build the capacity of CSHRDs in security and protection management (Capacity development); and

iii. To enhance the security and protection of CSHRDs in this Country (Protection).

iv. To mobilizes Resources and finance efforts of HRD in Somalia (Fundraising).     

Outputs for Strategic Aim One-Advocacy: 

1.1 Engage the parliament for improvement of the laws for human rights defenders.

1.2 Engage the government for improvement and enactment of the laws and policies for human rights defenders.

1.3 International advocacy for ratification and domestication of international human rights instruments.

1.4 Advocacy for strengthening the capacity of law enforcers to address human rights defenders according to law.

1.5 Advocate for redress of victims of Violence.

1.6 Develop communicate strategy to engage the public, FGS/FMS, Donors, UN/INGOs.

Outputs for Strategic Aim Two- Capacity Development:

2.1 Existing and new human rights defenders are made aware of their rights and empowered to protect themselves.

2.2 The media practitioners are empowered to monitor and report human rights abuses against the CSHRDs.

2.3 Established and strengthened capacity building and empowerment programs to CSHRDs.

2.4 Ensured availability of human resources and performance improvement.

2.5 Ensured availability of financial resources and improved financial management.

2.6 Established and ensures improved governance and strategic directions.

2.7 Functioning M&E system and baseline indicators in place.

2.8 Expand the membership base for a bigger voice.

Outputs for Strategic Aim Three-Protection

3.1 Established and strengthened Self-protection mechanisms for the CSHRDs.

3.2 Improve IDMA approach in Somalia (Investigation, Documentation, monitoring, advocacy).

3.3 Develop Monthly, Yearly UPR to share with FGS, UN Human right and international Community.

3.4 Advocate for HR Curriculums in Schools and universities.

Outputs for Strategic Aim Four: Fundraising:

         4.1.  Develop 3 F fundraising, Financing and Funding strategy.

        4.2.  Develop strategic plan 2021-2025.

         4.3. Identifying Crowd funding sites.

         4.4. Map Donors for Somalia.

         4.5. Plan Fundraising events-National HRD Get together and Donor Briefing.

         4.6. Develop 10 concept notes and 5 Proposals in the coming 6 months.

        4.7. Develop 20 Emotional stories for Fundraising.

To realize the stated aims and outputs, the Coalitions will employ a number of strategies. Such strategies will include but not limited to the following:

 – Identify and capitalize upon emerging internal and external influencing opportunities,

– Develop and maintain good working relations with the media,

 – Establish and strengthen good working relations with the Parliament, the Judiciary, and the Executive and development partners at all levels,

 – Capitalize upon Information Communication Technology to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in advocacy and service delivery at large,

 – Establish and strengthen relations with law enforcers, academic and research institutions.

 – Outsources funds from diverse donors and business community nationally, regionally and globally 

II – Coalition Governance

The Coalition shall be governed by inclusive and accountable organs driving the mandate from coalition members – 

a) General assembly 

b) Coalition Management Unit

c) Program management Unit

d) Advisory panel

1. General Assembly-Representative from member organizations, the main decision making body.

2. Coalitions management unit:-This the overall leadership organ and with specific role of performance accountability for compliance grant management and Decision-making forum in line with Coalitions 0verall directions (Vision and Goals).  CMU will consist of representatives of  the member Organizations in Somalia. 

3. Program management Unit:- PMU will consist of Chief of party, Head of Program, Finance, Human Resource and Admin( FHRA) Manager, MEAL Manager. They will take leadership, management, accountability and coordination role for the smooth running of Coalitions operation. PMU will be recruited based competence and merits.

4. Advisory panel: -The Coalitions will have advisory panel consisting of technical team and observers 

Financial Management:

The financial management framework policy shall be produced by the finance and planning department of the Coalition, the policy will be meant to define the financial parameters under which the Organisation operates. They serve as part of the internal control system. Adherence to policies laid out in this document will be a collective responsibility within the Coalition and everyone is required to arrange the financial security, accuracy and safety in their areas of work. 

It will be  essential that everyone applies these policies. 

The primary objective of these policies will be to ensure that the Coalitions has sufficient internal controls to: 

– Document and support the validity and authorisation of financial transactions. 

– Verify the efficiency and effectiveness of financial operations. 

– Ensure the reliability and completeness of financial and management information. 

– Ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations and agreements. 

– Safeguard resources. 

The policies detailed in this document shall be applicable to all the Coalitions staff. The policies and responsibilities relate to specific roles and any individual carrying out that role is expected to adhere to them regardless of the basis on which they are employed.

Given the diversity of  the Coalitions‟s work, no single policy document can be fully comprehensive. Therefore, it will be the duty of all the Organisation’s staff to act within the spirit of the policies in this document to ensure accountability of the Coalitions‟s resources and that they are reflected in a true and fair way in the accounts. In cases where the policy has not identified a person responsible for carrying out the checks, the Executive Directors of the specific Coalitions and the senior management team  must identify the suitable person. The following concepts and practices must be inherent within all internal controls: 

• Segregation of duties: wherever possible a system of checks and balances shall be put in place with responsibilities for a process separated and delegated to several individuals rather than entrusted to one individual to prevent errors and protect against dishonest behaviour. 

• Acknowledgement of Responsibility: signatures shall be required to prevent unauthorised transactions and establish accountability. 

• Physical controls: measures shall be taken to verify the existence of reported assets, listed inventory, and secure documents and stationery (e.g., cheques, Purchase Orders, etc.). 

• Monitoring and independent checks: cross checks and management spot checks shall be made to ensure that policies and procedures are followed. 

• High risk or high value transactions: double checks or reviews shall be performed to ensure that critical decisions, high-value transactions, and external reports are correct. 

• Integrity of accounting records: access to computer records shall be restricted to prevent illicit and unintentional access. Critical information shall be backed up regularly. 

• Clear responsibility for resources: access to resources shall be restricted to specific individuals and those individuals should have authority over those resources. 

• Regular and timely reporting: accounting and reporting shall be specifically assigned to individuals who must be held accountable for timely and accurate reporting.

• Independent Organizationations: internally generated reports and documents shall be reconciled with independent sources of information and proofs of accuracy should be performed at various stages of a task. 

The policies set out in this document shall be intended for internal use. This document or its contents shall not be disclosed to third parties externally without either the Executive Directors or the Finance and administration manager’s consent. 

It is essential that Coalitions shall staff implements the policies outlined immediately and incorporate updates as and when they are available. The Finance Department will be producing a series of procedures, templates and examples of best practice to support and assist with the implementation of these policies. 

These policies will be the responsibility of Coalitions Finance and administration manager and are subject to review on at least an annual basis although more frequently should circumstances dictate. 

Fundermental Coalition’s accounting policies

The Coalitions will observe accounting practices acceptable and in conformity with our partners. Where appropriate, adhere to the specific accounting policies and reporting requirements set out in other contractual agreements. 

The Organization’s fundamental accounting policies shall include:

1. Financial Year

The Financial year of the Organization shall start on 1st January and end on 31st December of the year.

2. Currency of the Financial Records

All financial records will be maintained in the United States Dollar (USD) and prepared in accordance with the measurement bases prescribed by our donors. The accounts and all the subsidiary ledgers shall be maintained in the same currency and all narrative will be in English.

3. Basis of Preparation

The accounting records and financial statements thereof shall be prepared in accordance with and comply with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS’s) under the historical cost convention as modified by the revaluation of certain property, plant and equipment and fair value adjustments to investment property and financial instruments.

2.4 Accrual Basis of Accounting 

The Coalitions shall apply the accrual basis of accounting for its income and expenditure. Income will be recognized in the financial statements when earned and expenditure when incurred. Income and expenditure will be recorded in the financial statements for the period to which they relate.  

2.5 Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Organisation and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue will include Consultancy fees and Interest income. 

Income from Consultancy shall be recognised in the period in which the contract has been signed and work deemed commenced and collectability of the related receivables is reasonably assured.   nterest income will be recognised on a time proportion basis using the effective interest rate method.

2.6 Expenditure Recognition

Expenses will be recognized when incurred even though payment may not have been made.

2.7 Consistency

Consistent accounting methods will be applied from one fiscal year to the next and any changes will be reported and their effect on financial results disclosed in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

2.8 Reporting in Foreign Currencies 

The financial statements of the Organisation shall be presented in the United States Dollars. 


1. Purpose

      The purpose of this policy will be to ensure that:

• The Organisation operates all its banking affairs in accordance with best practice.

• Funds received are promptly and accurately accounted for all payments are properly verified and approved before payment is made.

• All vouchers and supporting documents shall be properly stamped ‘PAID’ immediately payment is done.

• There shall be adequate segregation of responsibilities.

• All cash transactions shall be properly captured in the accounting system.

• Bank reconciliations shall be done on a timely basis.

• Cash requirements shall be forecasted. 

2. Policy

The Coalitions shall maintain such bank accounts as may be appropriate for the proper management of its affairs. 

Clear segregation of duties shall be maintained whenever possible in the management of banking transactions. All queries arising from direct debits and credits to the accounts should be passed to the FAM at once to enable him to make the follow up with the bank.

The CMU shall, upon recommendation of the FAM designate all banks and banking operations with reputable banks. Funds may be held in designated foreign currency accounts where in the opinion of the CMU the maintenance of such accounts is in the best interest of the Organisation. 

The CMU shall delegate to the Treasurer the power to open and close bank accounts on behalf of the Organisation.

The Main bank account (s) shall be maintained for transactions relating to shareholders and investments. The Operational bank account (s) shall be maintained for income related activities and office operations. 

Membership selection Criteria:

An organization seeking membership with transnational networking of civil society for strengthening democratic governance and improved public service delivery in Somalia. should meet the following criteria:

• Be active in the area of democracy, good governance, human right and social developments or a closely related field; 

• Endorse the values and general principles of the Coalitions, as will be reflected in its strategic plan; 

• Represent an institution, agency or government active in the Coalitions priority areas; and

• Be actively supporting the attainment of the civil society code of ethics and the Agenda for Global Action on good governance and democracy.

Membership responsibilities

• Actively initiate and participate in collaborative activities to achieve millennium Development Goals MDGs in Somalia. 

• Contribute to Coalitions activities. Contributions can include direct and indirect funding for CS programs, technical expertise, staff time, and assistance with media and networking; 

• Promote the principles and values of the Coalitions; and 

• Share knowledge and information on lessons learned, success stories, case studies, program results and policy approaches that help to accelerate action towards the Coalitions workforce crisis. 

Members will be encouraged to:

• Link to the Coalitions website from their organization’s website; 

• Keep their profile contact information up-to-date by communicating changes to the CMU; 

• Contribute to Coalitions activities and newsletter by sharing new ideas, data, best practices and other important policies; 

• Attend and contribute to the Global Forum on our programs/activities. 

• Promote the work of the Coalitions; and 

• Advocate for our programs and activities.